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Politóloga, Abogada y Diploma de Honor (UBA). Diplomada en "Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law" en la AMERICAN UNIVERSITY WASHINGTON COLLEGE OF LAW AND NETHERLANDS INSTITUTE OF HUMAN RIGHTS. Consultora del PNUD ARG 97/50. Participo en más de 30 eventos académicos vinculados a la temática penal y criminológica, exponiendo –entre otros-en el XII CONGRESO NACIONAL DE DERECHO PENAL Y CRIMINOLOGÍA, Buenos Aires, Argentina,2005 y el CONGRESO NACIONAL DE CRIMINOLOGÍA,Buenos Aires, Argentina,2007. Es autora del libro "Realidad Carcelaria y Medios Alternativos a la Prisión", El Caso Argentino a la luz del Derecho Internacional de los Derechos Humanos y las Ultimas Reformas Legislativas", Windmills Editions, California, USA, 2013. También de 10 publicaciones,en diferentes diarios y revistas argentinas. Asimismo es coautora de los siguientes libros: “Código Procesal Penal de la CABA. Comentado y Concordado”, Editorial Lajouane, BS. As., Argentina, 2008 y “Lecciones Preliminares de Derecho Penal y Procesal Penal", Editorial Lajouane, Bs. As., Argentina, 2010.

jueves, 8 de agosto de 2013

Alcatraz Island: The place where was “The Rock”. Dra. Patricia A. Taus.

Regulations for Inmates from the prison of Alcatraz, 1934. Rule N 5: “You are entitled to food, clothing, shelter and medical attention. Anything else that you get is a privilege”
 Carved by natural and human forces, Alcatraz served the army as fortress and military prison, and the Department of Justice as a maximum-security federal penitentiary. Today, this once desolate island in the center of San Francisco Bay is a National Parkland of Golden Gate with historic gardens, tide-pools, bird colonies and bay view’s beyond compare.

General population cells.
 There are four cellblocks in the prison. A Block was not used to house inmates during the federal penitentiary years. Cells in B and C Blocks (336 cells) were considered “general population”. Unruly inmates were “segregated” in D Block (42 cells), also known as isolation.
Alcatraz was never filled to capacity. The average number was approximately 260, the lowest (during regular operations) was 222, and the highest, was 320. Although 1.576 inmate numbers were issued, the total number of actual prisoners was fewer because some inmates served multiple terms on Alcatraz and there was no consistent policy regarding giving returning inmates new numbers or reissuing them their previous number.

D Block (Isolation)

Prisoners were moved from cell to cell throughout their time on the Rock. Al Capone was no exception, and during his time at Alcatraz (1934-1938), he spent time in various cells including a short stretch on D Block (Isolation) following a fistfight with another inmate. He was eventually transferred to a medical prison facility in southern California. Robert Stroud spent no time in a general population cell. After arriving on the island in 1942, he was placed to D Block and in 1948 to the hospital wing. He remained there until 1959, when he was transferred to a medical facility for federal prisoners in Springfield, Missouri.
Portraits of the four Wardens of Alcatraz.

It required 90 officers to cover three 8 hours shifts and to fill in for those on annual and sick leave. Beginning in the 1950s, the number of correctional officers was reduced due to budget cuts. Some lived in San Francisco, but many lived on the island. Building 64 included a number of apartments, and there were three apartment buildings, four wood-frame houses, and a duplex on the Parade Ground. The warden lived in a large house near the prison building. Some of these buildings were destroyed by fire in 1970, and others were demolished by the government a short time later.

In the 29 years that Alcatraz served as a federal prison, 36 prisoners tried to escape from the rock. Only five were not recaptured, two drowned and three (Frank Morris and Brothers Clarence and John Anglin) remain fugitives. The lives of the three authors of the June 1962 escape has been immortalized in the movie "Escape from Alcatraz" starring Clint Eastwood.
Alcatraz had no “death row” or any facility for executions. Eight inmates were murdered by other inmates; five committed suicide; and fifteen died of natural causes, including disease. Bodies were sent back to family members or, in a few cases, buried in the local paupers’ graves.

Description of how later took the escape of June 11, 1962 exposed in "The Rock".

Deteriorating buildings and high operating costs (for example, the lack of a sewage system) ended Alcatraz’s days as a federal prison. The last inmates left the island on March 21, 1963 and the prison officially closed its doors a few months later.

The modern equivalent of Alcatraz is in Florence, Colorado.

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